Gold Open Access

Exploring the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) of Factors Influencing E-book Usage among CCA Students in the Philippines

(1) Angelica Jaisel M. Pinedaa Mail (City College of Angeles (CCA), Pampanga, Philippines)
(2) Almira N. Mohamadc Mail (City College of Angeles (CCA), Pampanga, Philippines)
(3) * Oluyinka Solomon Mail (Baliuag University, Bulacan, Philippines)
(4) Christal Nicole H. Bircob Mail (City College of Angeles (CCA), Pampanga, Philippines)
(5) Mark Gil Superioe Mail (City College of Angeles (CCA), Pampanga, Philippines)
(6) Heidie O. Cuencof Mail (City College of Angeles (CCA), Pampanga, Philippines)
(7) Filipinas L. Bognot Mail (City College of Angeles (CCA), Pampanga, Philippines)
*Corresponding author


Early adopters of e-books claimed that e-books encouraged reading, and served as a means of improving individual academic performance. This appears to be unnoticed by academics in the Philippines. Objectives: The primary goal of this work is to conduct a study reporting the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) of factors influencing e-book usage among students and robustness of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Design: The TAM criteria were used to design an online questionnaire survey focusing on the usefulness, ease of use perception, and attitude toward addressing the hypotheses to the structural equation model for using e-books. The questionnaire’s validity was confirmed by four specialists. The participants are undergraduates at City College of Angeles, Philippines. A total of 348 responses was analyze with aids of SmartPLS version 3.3.2. Results show that these four factors are related to each other and have a strong influence on e-book usage and adoption. Also indicated that perceived usefulness (PU) is the most significant and perceived ease of use (PEU) indicated the least supported. A total 65% variance explained, SRMR < 0.08 NFI above 0.9 and RMS_theta < 0.12 achieved. Ultimately, a thorough analysis of the study is recommended for future researchers.


Attitude; Ease of use; Usefulness; E-book; Mean square residual



Article metrics

Abstract views : 1258 | PDF views : 562




Full Text



Ahmad, S., Zulkurnain, N. N. A., & Khairushalimi, F. I. (2016). Assessing the validity and reliability of a measurement model in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science, 1-8. 10.9734/BJMCS/2016/25183

Akuffo, M. N., & Budu, S. (2019). Use of electronic resources by students in a premier postgraduate theological university in Ghana. South African journal of information management, 21(1), 1-9. DOI:

Alarcón, D., Sánchez, J. A., & De Olavide, U. (2015, October). Assessing convergent and discriminant validity in the ADHD-R IV rating scale: User-written commands for Average Variance Extracted (AVE), Composite Reliability (CR), and Heterotrait-Monotrait ratio of correlations (HTMT). In Spanish STATA meeting (Vol. 39). Universidad Pablo de Olavide.


DOI: 10.14807/ijmp.v10i5.872

Alfonso, M. A. B. (2017). The Use of Ebook as an Instructional Tool: The St. Paul University Philippines Experience. SPUP Graduate School Research Journal, 15(1). file:///C:/Users/Win-7/Downloads/439-Article%20Text-618-1-10-20210303.pdf

Apuke, O. D., & Iyendo, T. O. (2018). University students' usage of the internet resources for research and learning: forms of access and perceptions of utility. Heliyon, 4(12), e01052.

Arkorful, V., & Abaidoo, N. (2015). The role of e-learning, advantages and disadvantages of its adoption in higher education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 12(1), 29-42.

Atmowardoyo, H. (2018). Research methods in TEFL studies: Descriptive research, case study, error analysis, and R & D. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9(1), 197-204. DOI:

Avineri, N., Johnson, E., Brice‐Heath, S., McCarty, T., Ochs, E., Kremer‐Sadlik, T., ... & Paris, D. (2015). Invited forum: Bridging the “language gap”. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 25(1), 66-86. DOI:

Becker, J. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2018). Estimating moderating effects in PLS-SEM and PLSc-SEM: Interaction term generation* data treatment. Journal of Applied Structural Equation Modeling, 2(2), 1-21.

DOI: 10.47263/jasem.2(2)01

Boczar, J., & Pascual, L. (2017). E-books for the classroom and open access textbooks: Two ways to help students save money on textbooks. The Serials Librarian, 72(1-4), 95-101. DOI:

Brownell M, Chartier M, Santos R, Ekuma O, Au W, Sarkar J, MacWilliam L, Burland E, Koseva I, Guenette W. How are Manitoba's Children Doing? Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, 2012

Bulur, H. G., & Gönül, M. S. (2020). A quantitative investigation of students’ attitudes towards electronic book technology. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 52(3), 916-930.


Cheah, C. S., Yeo, S. F., and Lim, W. Y. (2018). Factors influencing behavior intention to use e-books among Malaysian University students. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 10(6S), 1163-1175.doi:

Chen, C. H., & Su, C. Y. (2019). Using the BookRoll e-book system to promote self-regulated learning, self-efficacy and academic achievement for university students. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 22(4), 33-46. DOI:

Chretien, J. L., Nimon, K., Reio Jr, T. G., & Lewis, J. (2020). Responding to low coefficient alpha: Potential alternatives to the file drawer. Human Resource Development Review, 19(3), 215-239. doi/abs/10.1177/1534484320924151

Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (2019). Constructing validity: New developments in creating objective measuring instruments. Psychological assessment, 31(12), 1412


DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (2019). Introduction to research E-book: understanding and applying multiple strategies. Elsevier Health Sciences.,+E.,+%26+Gitlin,+L.+N.+(2019).+Introduction+to+research+E-book:+

Dos Santos, P. M., & Cirillo, M. Â. (2021). Construction of the average variance extracted index for construct validation in structural equation models with adaptive regressions. Communications in Statistics-Simulation and Computation, 1-13.


Durodolu, O. O. (2016). Technology acceptance model as a predictor of using information system'to acquire information literacy skills. Library Philosophy and Practice.

Evermann, J., & Rönkkö, M. (2021). Recent developments in PLS. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 44. DOI: 10.17705/1CAIS.044XX

Gelderblom, H., Matthee, M., Hattingh, M., & Weilbach, L. (2019). High school learners’ continuance intention to use electronic textbooks: a usability study. Education and Information Technologies, 24(2), 1753-1776.


Gómez Domingo, M. (2020). Improvement of secondary education student's information problem solving skills using an inquiry web-based learning environment (Doctoral dissertation, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya).

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.,+J.+F.,+Hult,+G.+T.+M.,+Ringle,+C.+M.,+%26+Sarstedt,+M.+(2021).+A+primer+on+partial+least+squares+structural+equation+modeling+(PLS-SEM).

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European business review.

Haryani, E., Coben, W. W., Pleasants, B. A., & Fetters, M. K. (2021). Analysis of Teachers' Resources for Integrating the Skills of Creativity and Innovation, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Collaboration, and Communication in Science Classrooms. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 10(1), 92-102. DOI:

Hassan, A. R., & Haque, M. A. (2016). Computer-aided obstructive sleep apnea screening from single-lead electrocardiogram using statistical and spectral features and bootstrap aggregating. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 36(1), 256-266 DOI:

Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., Ketchen, D. J., Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., and Calantone, R. J. 2014. Common Beliefs and Reality about Partial Least Squares: Comments on Rönkkö & Evermann (2013), Organizational Research Methods, 17(2): 182-209. DOI: 10.1177/1094428114526928

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 43(1), 115-135. DOI:

Hsiao, K. L., & Chen, C. C. (2017). Value-based adoption of e-book subscription services: The roles of environmental concerns and reading habits. Telematics and Informatics, 34(5), 434-448. DOI:

Huang, L. C., Shiau, W. L., & Lin, Y. H. (2017). What factors satisfy e-book store customers? Development of a model to evaluate e-book user behavior and satisfaction. Internet Research


Husin, N. K. M., & Mohamed, A. M. (2021, July). The Effects of Savings Culture and Government Policy in Instilling the Habit of Savings. In 2nd International Conference on Administration Science 2020 (ICAS 2020) (pp. 307-312). Atlantis Press. file:///C:/Users/Win-7/Downloads/125958416.pdf

Hussein, Z. (2017). Leading to intention: The role of attitude in relation to technology acceptance model in e-learning. Procedia Computer Science, 105, 159-164. DOI:

Hwang, G. J., & Lai, C. L. (2017). Facilitating and bridging out-of-class and in-class learning: An interactive e-book-based flipped learning approach for math courses. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 184-197.

Indarsin, T., & Ali, H. (2017). Attitude toward Using m-commerce: The analysis of perceived usefulness perceived ease of use, and perceived trust: Case study in Ikens Wholesale Trade, Jakarta–Indonesia. Saudi Journal of Business and Management Studies, 2(11), 995-1007. DOI: 10.21276/sjbms.2017.2.11.7

Islami, M. M., Asdar, M., & Baumassepe, A. N. (2021). Analysis of Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use to the Actual System Usage through Attitude Using Online Guidance Application. Hasanuddin Journal of Business Strategy, 3(1), 52-64

Jayakananthan, M., & Jeyaraj, W.J., (2019). Behavioural Aspects of Postgraduate Students in Using Electronic Information Resources at the Library Eastern University, Sri Lanka. Journal of the University Librarians Association of Sri Lanka. 22(3), 36-40.


Joel, A. P. (2020). Awareness and Purpose of Electronic Information Resources among Postgraduate Students of Library and Information Science in Borno State. 10.36349/EASJEHL.2020.v03i08.004

Kalayci, T. E., Kalayci, E. G., Lechner, G., Neuhuber, N., Spitzer, M., Westermeier, E., & Stocker, A. (2021). Triangulated investigation of trust in automated driving: Challenges and solution approaches for data integration. Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 21, 100186.

Kamble, M. S. Connected to Learning Resource centre: Best practices of Libraries in Pandemic situation like covid. 352992859_Connected_to_Learning_Resource_centre_Best_practices_of_Libraries_in_Pandemic_situation_like_covid_19/links/60e2bb89458515d6fbfd5994/Connected-to-Learning-Resource-centre-Best-practices-of-Libraries-in-Pandemic-situation-like-covid-19.pdf

Kandasamy, I., Kandasamy, W. V., Obbineni, J. M., & Smarandache, F. (2020). Indeterminate Likert scale: feedback based on neutrosophy, its distance measures and clustering algorithm. Soft Computing, 24(10), 7459-7468.


Kiilu, P. W., Otike, J. N., & Kiplang'at, J. (2019). Perceptions of Undergraduates on E-Books in Comparison to Print and their E-Book Expectations: A Case of Public Universities in Kenya. Library Philosophy and Practice, 0_1-15.

Kim, J., Seo, J., Zo, H., & Lee, H. (2020). Why digital goods have not replaced traditional goods: the case of e-books. Journal of Enterprise Information Management.

Kirezli, Ö., & Arslan, F. M. (2019). Analyzing motivational determinants of shopping addiction tendency. Ege Academic Review, 19(1), 61-74. DOI: 10.21121/eab.2019148775

Knief, U., & Forstmeier, W. (2021). Violating the normality assumption may be the lesser of two evils. Behavior Research Methods, 1-15. DOI:

Kong, F., Li, X., Xia, Y., Wang, M., and Sun, X. (2020). Technology acceptance model of mobile social media among Chinese college students. J. Technol. Behav.Sci. 3, 1–5. DOI: 10.1007/s41347-020-00169-0

Krebsbach, C. M. (2013). Bootstrapping with small samples in structural equation modeling: Goodness of fit and confidence intervals. University of Rhode Island.

Lai, C. S. (2016). Integrating E-Books into Science Teaching by Preservice Elementary School Teachers. Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health, 2(1), 57-66.

Letchumanan, M., & Tarmizi, R., (2011). Assessing the intention to use e-book among engineering undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. Library Hi Tech, 29(3), 512-528. DOI:

Liao, S., Hong, J. C., Wen, M. H., & Pan, Y. C. (2018). Applying technology acceptance model (TAM) to explore users’ behavioral intention to adopt a performance assessment system for E-book production. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(10), em1601 DOI:

Lim, J., Whitehead, G. E. K., and Choi, Y. (2020). Interactive e-book reading vs. paper-based reading: comparing the effects of different mediums on middle school students' reading comprehension. System 97:102434. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2020.102434

Liu, H., Shao, M., Liu, X., & Zhao, L. (2021). Exploring the influential factors on readers' continuance intentions of E-Book APPs: personalization, usefulness, playfulness, and satisfaction. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 262. DOI:

Machete, M. D., & de la Pena, M. M. E. (2019). Students’ Perception On Electronic Books Towards Reading Comprehension.

Mafunda, B., Bere, A., & Swart, J. (2016, July). Establishing determinants of electronic books utilisation: An integration of two human computer interaction adoption frameworks. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 549-562). Springer, Cham.


Makwanya, C., & Oni, O. (2019). E-books preference compared to print books based on student perceptions: A case of University of Fort Hare students.

Mangan, J. (2017). Digital resources in dlr Libraries: their awareness and usage amongst library users (Doctoral dissertation, Dublin Business School).

Marliana, R. R., & Nurhayati, L. (2020). Covariance Based-SEM on Relationship between Digital Literacy, Use of E-Resources, and Reading Culture of Students. Indonesian Journal of Statistics and Its Applications, 4(1), 55-67.

Masrek, M. N., & Samadi, I. (2017). User engagement in academic web digital library. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(9), 789-799.

Merkle, A. C., Ferrell, L. K., Ferrell, O. C., & Hair Jr, J. F. (2021). Evaluating E-Book Effectiveness and the Impact on Student Engagement. Journal of Marketing Education, 02734753211035162.

Miranda, J., Navarrete, C., Noguez, J., Molina-Espinosa, J. M.,

Ramírez-Montoya, M. S., Navarro-Tuch, S. A., ... & Molina, A. (2021). The core components of education 4.0 in higher education: Three case studies in engineering education. Computers & Electrical Engineering, 93, 107278.


Mohammed, F., Ibrahim, O., & Ithnin, N. (2016). Factors influencing cloud computing adoption for e-government implementation in developing countries: Instrument development. Journal of Systems and Information Technology. DOI:

Moslehpour, M., Pham, V. K., Wong, W. K., & Bilgiçli, İ. (2018). E-purchase intention of Taiwanese consumers: Sustainable mediation of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Sustainability, 10(1), 234.


Mustafa, M. H., Ahmad, M. B., Shaari, Z. H., & Jannat, T. (2021). Integration of TAM, TPB, and TSR in understanding library user behavioral utilization intention of physical vs. E-book format. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 47(5), 102399. DOI:

Mutia, F., & Cahyani, I. R. (2021). Assistive Technology to Enhance Access to Information for Student with Disabilities: A Case Study in Surabaya. Khizanah al-Hikmah: Jurnal Ilmu Perpustakaan, Informasi, dan Kearsipan, 9(1), 16-27. Assistive_Technology_to_Enhance_Access_to_Information_for_Student_with_Disabilities_A_Case_Study_in_Surabaya/links/60f126a00859317DOI: 10.24252/v9i1a3

Nayanajith, G., Damunupola, K. A., & Ventayen, R. J. (2019). Impact of Innovation and Perceived Ease of Use on E-Learning Adoption. Asian Journal of Business and Technology Studies, 2(1), 19-27.

Nazari, G., Bobos, P., Lu, S., & MacDermid, J. C. (2021). Psychometric properties of the single assessment numeric evaluation in patients with lower extremity pathologies. A systematic review. Disability and rehabilitation, 43(15), 2092-2099.


Nugroho, M. A., Dewanti, P. W., & Novitasari, B. T. (2018, September). The impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on student's performance in mandatory e-learning use. In 2018 International Conference on Applied Information Technology and Innovation (ICAITI) (pp. 26-30). IEEE. 10.1109/ICAITI.2018.8686742

Nuryanto, S., Sugandini, D., & Winarno, W. (2020, October). Trust, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use and Attitudes on Online Shopping. In Proceeding of LPPM UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta Conference Series 2020–Economic and Business Series (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 97-103).


ORMANCI, Ü., & Çepni, S. (2020). Views on interactive e-book use in science education of teachers and students who perform e-book applications. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 11(2), 247-279.

DOI: 10.17569/tojqi.569211

Penney, D., Ostrow, L., & Burke-Miller, J. (2021). Development and properties of a measure designed to assess core competencies in intentional peer support. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal. DOI:

Qashou, A. (2021). Influencing factors in M-learning adoption in higher education. Education and information technologies, 26(2), 1755-1785.


Racero, F. J., Bueno, S., & Gallego, M. D. (2020). Predicting students’ behavioral intention to use open source software: A combined view of the technology acceptance model and self-determination theory. Applied Sciences, 10(8), 2711.


Ramayah, T., Yeap, J. A., Ahmad, N. H., Halim, H. A., & Rahman, S. A. (2017). Testing a confirmatory model of Facebook usage in SmartPLS using consistent PLS. International Journal of Business and Innovation, 3(2), 1-14. /file:///C:/Users/Win-7/Downloads/21.IJBI-ConsistentPLSReportthenormality.pdf

Rao, K. N., Kumar, S., & Tripathi, M. (2018). E-book and print book price and desirability for university libraries: a comparative study. The Electronic Library. DOI:

Roman, R. G., Trobada, C. S. P., Gaton, F. P., Gania, C. K., Oluyinka, S. A., Cuenco, H. O., & Daenos, R. G. (2020). A Study on the Utilization of e-Resources among College Students. International Journal of Knowledge Engineering, 6(1). file:///C:/Users/Win-7/Downloads/Documents/127-X388.pdf

DOI: 10.18178/ijke.2020.6.1.127

Salloum, S. A., & Shaalan, K. (2018, September). Adoption of e-book for university students. In International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Systems and Informatics (pp. 481-494). Springer, Cham. DOI:

Sarkodie, S. A., & Strezov, V. (2019). Economic, social and governance adaptation readiness for mitigation of climate change vulnerability: Evidence from 192 countries. Science of the Total Environment, 656, 150-164.

Sarstedt, M., & Cheah, J. H. (2019). Partial least squares structural equation modeling using SmartPLS: a software review.


Schwarzer, R., & Hamilton, K. (2020). Changing behaviour using the health action process approach. The handbook of behaviour change, 89-103.,+R.,+

Shettar, I. M. (2017, February). Electronic Books (eBooks): Acceptance and Usage at NITK, Surathkal. In Proceedings of National Conference on Library Innovations for Excellence-2017 held at IISER, Pune on (pp. 165-175).

Shiratuddin, N., and Hassan, S. (2020). E-reading in organizations: users' satisfaction and preference. Malaysian Manag. J. 8, 33–44.

DOI: 10.32890/mmj.8.2.2004.8759

Smeda, A., Shiratuddin, M. F., & Wong, K. W. (2018). A structural equation modelling approach for adoption of e-book amongst mathematics and statistics (MAS) students at higher education institutions in Libya. The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology.

Sun, Z., Xing, X., Song, B., Nie, Y., & Shao, H. (2019). Mobile intelligent computing in internet of things: An optimized data gathering method based on compressive sensing. IEEE Access, 7, 66110-66122.

DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2918615

Tovstiadi, E., Tingle, N., & Wiersma, G. (2018). Academic E-book Usability from the Student’s Perspective. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 13(4), 70-87.

Tracy, D. G. (2018). Format shift: Information behaviour and user experience in the academic e-book environment. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 58(1), 40-51. DOI:

Ullman JB. "Structural equation modeling." In: Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (ed). Using Multivariate Statistics. 5th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc. 1996. 676-780ttps://

Ullrich, M., & Strong, D. S. (2021). Exploring students’interpretations of success: a research instrument. Proceedings of the canadian engineering education association (ceea). file:///C:/Users/Win-7/Downloads/14931-Article%20Text-34296-1-10-20210624.pdf

Van Schalkwyk, G. I., & Volkmar, F. R. (2017). Autism spectrum disorders: Challenges and opportunities for transition to adulthood. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 26(2), 329-339. DOI:

Venkatasubramanian, H., Ravindran, S., & Anifa, M. (2018). Why Universities should push for E books? A means of University Reforms?. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 13(2).

Vrabec, A. N. (2021). Exploring The Effects Of An Adaptive Number eBook On Parental Attitudes Toward Mathematics (Doctoral dissertation, University of Dayton)

Wang, Y., Wang, S., Wang, J., Wei, J., and Wang, C. (2020). An empirical study of consumers' intention to use ride-sharing services: using an extended technology acceptance model. Transportation 47, 397–415. doi: 10.1007/s11116-018-9893-4

DOI: 10.1007/s11116-018-9893-4

Willits, F. K., Theodori, G. L., & Luloff, A. E. (2016). Another look at Likert scales. Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 31(3), 6 Taherdoost, H. (2017). Determining sample size; how to calculate survey sample size. International Journal of Economics and Management Systems, 2.

Yalung, H. A., Tuliao, D. L., Gabriel, P. R. M., Oluyinka, S. A., & Gil, M. (2020). Use of Social Media Platforms in Promoting the Academic Library Services of City College of Angeles among Students. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 10(6).

Social-Media-Acceptance-City-college-of-Angeles-Library.pdf DOI: 10.18178/ijiet.2020.10.6.1411

Yudiarti, R. F. E., & Puspaningrum, A. (2018). The Role Of Trust As A Mediation Between The Effect Of Perceived Usefulness And Perceived Ease Of Use To Interest To Buy E-Book. Jurnal Aplikasi Manajement, 16(3), 494-502.


Yusoff, A. S. M., Peng, F. S., Abd Razak, F. Z., & Mustafa, W. A. (2020, April). Discriminant validity assessment of religious teacher acceptance: The use of HTMT criterion. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1529, No. 4, p. 042045). IOP Publishing. 2020JPhCS1529d2045S DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1529/4/042045


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Angelica Jaisel M. Pinedaa, Almira N. Mohamadc, Oluyinka Solomon*, Christal Nicole H. Bircob, Mark Gil Superioe, Heidie O. Cuencof & Filipinas L. Bognot

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.